INC International Boutique Concepts International Boutique Cardigan INC How do we know something exists? There are a numbers of ways of knowing…INC Cardigan Concepts Boutique Boutique International International INC

  • -Sensory Experience
  • -Agreement with others
  • -Expert Opinion
  • -Logic
  • -Scientific Method (we’re using this one)

Concepts Boutique INC Boutique International International Cardigan INC International International Boutique Cardigan INC Boutique Concepts INC The Scientific Process (can be replicated)

  1. Identify a problem
  2. Clarify the problem
  3. Determine what data would help solve the problem
  4. Organize the data
  5. Interpret the results


General Types of Educational Research

  • Descriptive — survey, historical, content analysis, qualitative/ethnography
  • Associational — correlational, causal-comparative
  • Intervention — experimental, quasi-experimental, action research (sort of)


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Researchers Sometimes Have a Category Called Group Comparison

  • Ex Post Facto (Causal-Comparative): GROUPS ARE ALREADY FORMED
  • Experimental: RANDOM ASSIGNMENT OF INDIVIDUALS
  • Quasi-Experimental: RANDOM ASSIGNMENT OF GROUPS (oversimplified, but fine for now)

General Format of a Research PublicationCardigan INC Boutique INC Concepts International Boutique International

  • Background of the Problem (ending with a problem statement) — Why is this important to study? What is the problem being investigated?
  • Review of Literature — What do we already know about this problem or situation?
  • Methodology (participants, instruments, procedures) — How was the study conducted? Who were the participants? What data were collected and how?
  • INC Boutique International INC Concepts Boutique Cardigan International Analysis — What are the results? What did the data indicate?
  • Results — What are the implications of these results? How do they agree or disagree with previous research? What do we still need to learn? What are the limitations of this study?

Del Siegle, PhD
del.siegle@uconn.edu